Cardiac hypertrophic response (WP2795)

Integrated schematic of the more extensively characterized intracellular signal-transduction pathways that coordinate the cardiac hypertrophic response. During development and in response to physiological stimuli or pathological insults, the heart undergoes hypertrophic enlargement, which is characterized by an increase in the size of individual cardiac myocytes. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the [ CPTAC Assay Portal]
last edited


Mkutmon, Cgrove, MaintBot, Egonw, AlexanderPico, AMTan, Khanspers, and Eweitz

Cited In


Homo sapiens



Cell Type Ontology: cardiac muscle cell

Disease Ontology: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Pathway Ontology: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathway


Label Type Compact Identifier
NIK GeneProduct ncbigene:9020
MAPKKK GeneProduct ncbigene:4214
GC-A GeneProduct ncbigene:2978
FGFR Protein ncbigene:2263
PLC GeneProduct None
Ca2+ Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000464
TAK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:6885
Calmodulin GeneProduct ncbigene:801
GPCR Protein None
PLA2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5320
Calcineurin GeneProduct ncbigene:5530
RTKs Protein None
TGFR/Activin Protein ncbigene:7046
GPCR Protein None
TNFR Protein ncbigene:7132
Ins(1,4,5)P3 Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001498
CaMK GeneProduct ncbigene:817
MEF2 GeneProduct ncbigene:4205
DAG Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0007009
PKC GeneProduct ncbigene:5578
PKD GeneProduct ncbigene:5587
Endo-1 Protein None
Ang-II Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001035
Catecholamines Metabolite chebi:33567
ANP Protein ncbigene:4878
BNP Protein None
cGMP Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001314
PKG-I GeneProduct ncbigene:5592
Ca2+ Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000464
NFAT GeneProduct ncbigene:4773
NFAT GeneProduct ncbigene:4773
MAPKKKK GeneProduct ncbigene:11184
JNK GeneProduct ncbigene:5599
RAS GeneProduct None
RAC1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5879
ROH GeneProduct None
RAF1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5894
MEK2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5605
MEK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5604
ERK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5595
ERK2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5594
MEK4 GeneProduct ncbigene:6416
MEK7 GeneProduct ncbigene:5609
MAPKKK GeneProduct ncbigene:4214
MAPKKK GeneProduct ncbigene:4214
ERK5 GeneProduct ncbigene:5598
MEK5 GeneProduct ncbigene:5607
MEK6 GeneProduct ncbigene:5608
MEK3 GeneProduct ncbigene:5606
p38 GeneProduct ncbigene:1432
IKK-beta GeneProduct ncbigene:3551
I-kappa-B GeneProduct ncbigene:9641
NF-kappa-B GeneProduct ncbigene:4790
NF-kappa-B GeneProduct ncbigene:4790
Pol II GeneProduct None
CDK 7 GeneProduct ncbigene:1022
CDK 9 GeneProduct ncbigene:1025
PDK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5170
AKT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:207
AKT2 GeneProduct ncbigene:208
GSK3-beta GeneProduct ncbigene:2932
mTOR GeneProduct ncbigene:2475
TNF-alpha Protein ncbigene:7124
TGF-beta Protein ncbigene:7040
Neuregulin Protein ncbigene:3084
EGF Protein ncbigene:1950
IGF-I Protein ncbigene:3479
FGF Protein ncbigene:2247
HDAC 4 GeneProduct ncbigene:9759
HDAC 7 GeneProduct ncbigene:51564
HDAC 5 GeneProduct ncbigene:10014
HDAC 9 GeneProduct ncbigene:9734
HDAC 4 GeneProduct ncbigene:9759
HDAC 7 GeneProduct ncbigene:51564
HDAC 5 GeneProduct ncbigene:10014
HDAC 9 GeneProduct ncbigene:9734
IKK-alpha GeneProduct ncbigene:1147
IKK-gamma GeneProduct ncbigene:8517


  1. Heineke J, Molkentin JD. Regulation of cardiac hypertrophy by intracellular signalling pathways. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Aug;7(8):589–600. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia