Ketone bodies synthesis and degradation (WP311)

Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and the spontaneous breakdown product of acetoacetate, acetone) that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver and kidney. They are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain. In the brain, they are a vital source of energy during fasting. Source: [[wikipedia:Ketone_bodies|Wikipedia]]
last edited


N.Reyes, MaintBot, Thomas, Khanspers, AdrienDefay, Ddigles, Evelo, Egonw, and Eweitz

Cited In


Homo sapiens



Pathway Ontology: ketone bodies degradation pathway ketone bodies metabolic pathway ketone bodies biosynthetic pathway


Label Type Compact Identifier
Pyruvate metabolism Pathway None
Fatty Acid metabolism Pathway None
HMGCL GeneProduct ncbigene:3155
Acetyl-CoA Metabolite cas:72-89-9
Fatty Acid beta-oxidation Pathway wikipathways:WP143
ACAT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:38
Acetoacetyl-CoA Metabolite cas:1420-36-6
Glycolysis Pathway wikipathways:WP534
3-Hydroxy-butyrate Metabolite pubchem.compound:441
Sterol biosynthesis Pathway None
Acetoacetate Metabolite pubchem.compound:6971017
HMGCS2 GeneProduct ncbigene:3158
OXCT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5019
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Metabolite cas:1553-55-5
Acetyl-CoA Metabolite cas:72-89-9
BDH GeneProduct ncbigene:622


  1. Fukao T, Lopaschuk GD, Mitchell GA. Pathways and control of ketone body metabolism: on the fringe of lipid biochemistry. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004 Mar;70(3):243–51. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia