Valproic acid pathway (WP3871)

Valproic acid is a drug used for treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Valproic Acid dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract and then binds to and inhibits GABA transaminase. The drug's anticonvulsant activity may be related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize GABA or block the reuptake of GABA into glia and nerve endings. Valproic Acid may also work by suppressing repetitive neuronal firing through inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. It is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Valproic acid has also been shown to be an inhibitor of an enzyme called histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is needed for HIV to remain in infected cells. A study published in August 2005 revealed that patients treated with valproic acid in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a 75% reduction in latent HIV infection. Source: description from Metabolic pathway from: Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the [ CPTAC Assay Portal].
last edited


Fehrhart, DeSl, Khanspers, and MaintBot

Cited In


Homo sapiens




Disease Ontology: epilepsy

Pathway Ontology: xenobiotic metabolic pathway valproic acid drug pathway

Cell Type Ontology: neuron hepatocyte


Label Type Compact Identifier
GABA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000112
Pentanoyl-CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0013037
3-Oxovalproic acid Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0060685
ACSM1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000166743
2-Propylglutaric acid Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0060684
3-Hydroxyvalproic acid Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0013899
2-Propyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0060682
HADHB GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000138029
3-ene-Valproic acid CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0060740
4-ene-Valproic acid Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0013897
UGT1A3 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000243135
2-n-Propyl-4-oxopentanoic acid Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0060683
EHHADH GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000113790
4-ene-Valproic acid CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0060762
CYP2B6 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000197408
2,3-diene-Valproic acid-CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0060723
Propionyl-CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001275
4-Hydroxyvalproic acid Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0013900
2,3-diene-Valproic acid-CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0060723
HDAC1 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000116478
HSD17B10 GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000072506
3-ene-Valproic acid CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0060740
Uridine 5-diphosphate Metabolite HMDB
3-Hydroxyvalproic acid CoA Metabolite HMDB
3-oxo-Valproic acid CoA Metabolite HMDB
Valproic acid CoA Metabolite HMDB
HADHA GeneProduct Ensembl
2-ene-Valproic acid CoA Metabolite HMDB
5-Hydroxyvalproic acid Metabolite HMDB
CYP2A6 GeneProduct Ensembl
CYP2C9 GeneProduct Ensembl
ACADSB GeneProduct Ensembl
Valproic acid Metabolite HMDB
IVD GeneProduct Ensembl
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid Metabolite HMDB
ABAT GeneProduct Ensembl
Valproic acid glucuronide Metabolite HMDB
ACADSB GeneProduct Ensembl
CYP2A6 GeneProduct Ensembl
CYP2B6 GeneProduct Ensembl
CYP2C9 GeneProduct Ensembl
CYP2A6 GeneProduct Ensembl


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