Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (WP515)

Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). The process is essentially the reversal of the glycolysis pathway. The pathway is particularly important in animals, as the production of glucose from other metabolites is necessary for use as a fuel source by the brain, testes, erythrocytes and kidney medulla, all of which can use only glucose as the energy source. Gluconeogenesis in animals is perfomed mostly in the liver. The pathway is carried by cytoplasmic enzymes to the level of glucose-6-phosphate. Since free glucose tends to freely diffuse out of the cell, actual glucose formation is carried out in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum by gluocose-6-phosphatase . Glucose is then shuttled into the cytosol by glucose transporters. The main souces of carbon for gluconeogenesis in animals is lactate, formed in skeletal muscle cells during anaerobic glycolysis and carried to the liver in the blood stream. The conversion of glucose into lactate by glycolysis and back to glucose by gluconeogenesis is referred to as the Cori Cycle. Pathway summary from [ MetaCyc]
last edited


Kdahlquist, MaintBot, Thomas, AlexanderPico, Khanspers, Mkutmon, Egonw, DeSl, and Eweitz

Cited In


Saccharomyces cerevisiae



Pathway Ontology: gluconeogenesis pathway glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway glycolysis pathway


Label Type Compact Identifier
ADH5 GeneProduct ensembl:YBR145W
TDH1 GeneProduct ensembl:YOR176W
TCA Cycle Pathway None
MDH3 GeneProduct ensembl:YDL078C
GPM1 GeneProduct ensembl:YKL152C
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001473
Acetaldehyde Metabolite cas:75-07-0
Pyruvate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000243
PDC6 GeneProduct ensembl:YGR087C
HXK2 GeneProduct ensembl:YGL253W
PDB1 GeneProduct ensembl:YBR221C
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001058
ENO2 GeneProduct ensembl:YHR174W
Glucose Metabolite wikidata:Q37525
ADH3 (mt) GeneProduct ensembl:YMR083W
PGI1 GeneProduct ensembl:YBR196C
Ethanol Metabolite cas:64-17-5
Malate Metabolite cas:6915-15-7
Acetate Metabolite cas:64-19-7
PDC1 GeneProduct ensembl:YLR044C
Acetyl-CoA Metabolite cas:72-89-9
LAT1 GeneProduct ensembl:YNL071W
Fructose-6-phosphate Metabolite cas:643-13-0
ADH1 GeneProduct ensembl:YOL086C
FBA1 GeneProduct ensembl:YKL060C
Pyruvate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000243
PYK2 GeneProduct ensembl:YOR347C
ACS2 GeneProduct ensembl:YLR153C
PGK1 GeneProduct ensembl:YCR012W
ACS1 (mt) GeneProduct ensembl:YAL054C
Ethanol Metabolite cas:64-17-5
TPI1 GeneProduct ensembl:YDR050C
PDC5 GeneProduct ensembl:YLR134W
Acetaldehyde Metabolite cas:75-07-0
GLK1 GeneProduct sgd:GLK1
Glucose 6-phosphate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001401
ADH4 (mt) GeneProduct ensembl:YGL256W
PYC1 GeneProduct ensembl:YGL062W
Acetyl-CoA Metabolite cas:72-89-9
Oxaloacetate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000223
ALD6 GeneProduct ensembl:YPL061W
TDH2 GeneProduct ensembl:YJR009C
PFK2 GeneProduct ensembl:YMR205C
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001112
1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001270
MDH1 (mt) GeneProduct ensembl:YKL085W
TDH3 GeneProduct ensembl:YGR192C
PYC2 GeneProduct ensembl:YBR218C
PDX1 GeneProduct ensembl:YGR193C
Acetate Metabolite cas:64-19-7
ENO1 GeneProduct ensembl:YGR254W
Malate Metabolite cas:6915-15-7
LPD1 GeneProduct ensembl:YFL018C
3-Phosphoglycerate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000807
PDA1 GeneProduct ensembl:YER178W
ALD4 (mt) GeneProduct ensembl:YOR374W
ADH2 GeneProduct ensembl:YMR303C
MDH2 GeneProduct ensembl:YOL126C
HXK1 GeneProduct ensembl:YFR053C
2-Phosphoglycerate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000362
PCK1 GeneProduct sgd:PCK1
OAC1 GeneProduct ncbigene:853739
CDC19 GeneProduct ensembl:YAL038W
PFK1 GeneProduct ensembl:YGR240C
MAE1 GeneProduct ensembl:YKL029C
Oxaloacetate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000223
Phosphoenolpyruvate Metabolite cas:138-08-9
FBP1 GeneProduct ensembl:YLR377C


  1. Eisenstein AB. Current concepts of gluconeogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1967 Mar;20(3):282–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Lardy HA. Gluconeogenesis: pathways and hormonal regulation. Harvey Lect. 1966;60:261–78. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Waterhouse C, Keilson J. Cori cycle activity in man. J Clin Invest. 1969 Dec;48(12):2359–66. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Palmieri L, Vozza A, Agrimi G, De Marco V, Runswick MJ, Palmieri F, et al. Identification of the yeast mitochondrial transporter for oxaloacetate and sulfate. J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 6;274(32):22184–90. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Katz J, Tayek JA. Recycling of glucose and determination of the Cori Cycle and gluconeogenesis. Am J Physiol. 1999 Sep;277(3):E401-7. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia